July 21
Battle of First Bull Run

August 10
Battle of Wilson's Creek

August 19
CSA Congress authorizes Third Issue

August 26
First Richmond issue notes

August 27-28
Forts Clark and Hatteras, North Carolina taken by Union forces

September 2
Third Issue of notes issued

September 3
Confederate troops enter Kentucky

September 20
Lexington, Missouri surrenders to Confederates

CSA Major B.F. Ficklin sent to England to buy supplies

October 16
CS1 first placed on sale

November 1
McClellan becomes general-in-chief of all Union armies

November 6
Jefferson Davis elected regular president of the Confederacy

November 8
Earliest use of CS2
Confederate commissioners Mason and Slidell seized on British ship Trent

November 28
Missouri admited to Confederacy


Jan 19
Battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky

Feb 18
First session, First Confederate Congress convenes

Feb 21
Battle of Valverde, New Mexico

Feb 22
Jefferson Davis inuagurated as regular President

Feb 25
Confederate evacuation of Nashville
Legal Tender Act, authorizing "greenbacks" in Union

Feb 27
Confederate Congress authorizes martial law

Feb 28
Earliest use of CS4

Mar 6-8
Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas

Mar 9
Monitor vs Virginia at Hampton Roads

Mar 10
Earliest use of CS5

Mar 21
Earliest use of CS3

Mar 28
Battle of Glorieta, New Mexico

Apr 6-7
Battle of Shiloh, Tennessee

Apr 16
Earliest use of CS6
Conscription Act passed byConfederate Congress

Confederate Currency -- Third Issue September 1, 1861

First   Second   Fourth   Fifth   Sixth   Seventh  

Encouraged by the victory over the Union forces at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, this issue states that is is payable "six months after a treaty of peace".

This issue is the most chaotic of Confederate currency issues, with not less than 26 classified notes engraved by 5 different firms. The Act of August 19, 1861 authorized treasury notes not exceeding a total of $100,000,000, "outstanding at any one time, including the amount authorized under former acts". The Act of December 24, 1861 authorized an additional $50,000,000, while the Act of April 18, 1862 increased the total by an additional $50,000,000 plus a further $10,000,000 as a reserve fund.

Engraved by Hoyer & Ludwig

$5 -- T35 -- Slave loading cotton at lower left. "Indian princess" at upper right, by which term this bill has become known.

$10 -- T27 -- Liberty, blank shield, and eagle upper left. 7,160 issued.

$20 -- T17-- Ceres standing between Commerce and Navigation, Liberty standing left. Total issue was 43,732.

$50 -- T8 -- Moneta seated beside open treasure chest. Total issue was 469,660.

$100 -- T13 -- Slaves loading cotton bales on wagon, sailor at lower left. Total issue was 607,227.

Engraved by J.T. Paterson

Paterson was a dentist in August, Georgia. When Ludwig was unwilling to move from Richmond, Paterson bought out Hoyer & Ludwig, and then made the desired move to Columbia, South Carolina.

$5 -- T36 -- Commerce seated on bale of cotton, sailor at lower left. There is also a variety by Hoyer & Ludwig. The total issue of both types was 3,694,896.

$10 -- T28 -- Ceres holding an urn, with Commerce seated at left. Otherwise similar to Hoyer & Ludwig's T27. Again a Hoyer & Ludwig variety as well. The total issue of both printers was 1,076,738.

$20 -- T18 -- Three masted ship in center, sailor seated on capstan at lower left. The total issue of both types was 2,5366,743.

Engraved by Southern Bank Note Company

Although the work of the Southern Bank Note Company was of superior quality, the rate of production was so slow that the Confederate government asked that work be speeded up or moved to Richmond. When the company refused, the equipment and plates were ceased and shipped East. These were the last Confederate notes printed by the company.

$5 -- T31 -- Seated women representing Commerce, Agriculture, Justice, Liberty, and Indsutry. Minerva at left. Statute of George Washington at right. 58,860 issued.

$10 -- T22-- Family group of Indians in center. Thetis at left, Indian woman at right. 58,860 issued.

$20 -- T19 -- Navigation seated beside globe. Minerva at left, blacksmith at right. 14,860 issued.

$50 -- T15 -- Railroad train in center, Hope at left, Justice at right. 14,860 issued.

Engraved by B. Duncan

Colonel Blanton Duncan secured engravers and workmen in Europe, and opened a printing establish, orginally in Richmond. He moved shortly afterwards to Columbia, South Carolina, and varieties of this issue come from both cities.

$5 -- T37 -- Sailor and cotton bales center. Bust of Christopher G. Memminger, Confederate Treasury Secretary, at lower left, Justice and Ceres right. 1,003,289 notes issued.

$10 -- T29 -- Slave picking cotton, landscare and boat scene at right. 286,629 notes issued.

$10 -- T30 -- General Francis Marion offering dinner to Sir Banistree Tarleton during Revolutionary War, bust of cabinet member Robert Hunter at lower left, Minerva at right. 1,949,465 notes issued.

$20 -- T20 -- Industry seated behind large 20 with Cupid and beehives at sides. Vice President Alexander Stephens at lower left, Hope with anchor at right. 2,835,285 notes were issued.

Engraved by Keatinge & Ball

Keatinge & Ball eventually became the leading engravers and printers of Confederate notes. Initially the firm was Leggett, Keatinge & Ball, but on March 12, 1862 the firm was informed that Mr Leggett had been seen with a Union spy, and they would lose their contract if he did not leave. Edward Keatinge was an engraver from Britain, who was employed by the American Banknote Company in New York. After offers from the Confederate government, he entered into a partnership with Thomas Ball. The firm soon moved from Richmond to Columbia, South Carolina.

$5 -- T32 -- Blacksmith with anvil and tools at right, boy in oval at lower left. 20,333 printed.

$5 -- T33 and T34 -- Bust of C.G. Memminger in center, Minerva at right. Ornamentation in blue/green or yellow/green, T44 in black only. 136,756 notes of T33 were printed, 228,664 notes of T34.

$10 -- T23 -- Wagonload of cotton bales, Bust of John E. Ward at left. 20,333 printed.

$10 -- T24 -- Busts of Robert Hunter at lower left, child at lower right. 278,400 issued.

$10 -- T25 and T26 -- Hope with anchor, busts of Robert Hunter at lower left and C.G. Memminger at lower right. T26 (pictured) is over-printed with "X-X" in red or orange. 178,716 notes of T25 issued, 562,800 of T25.

$20 -- T21 -- Bust of Alexander Stephens against a background representing industry and agriculture. 164,248 notes printed.

$5 -- T16 -- Bust of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. 424,988 notes printed.

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